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Q. I explain with reference to context the following lines: 4 x 5 = 20
(i) Let us swear an oath, and keep it with an equal mind, In the hollow Lotos-land to live and lie reclined On the hills like Gods together, careless of mankind.
the quoted lines are from the poem "kubla khan" by samuel taylor coleridge. The speaker is proposing that they swear an oath to live together in a place of serenity and beauty, described as the "hollow lotos-land". The oath is to be taken with an "equal mind", meaning with a level and balanced outlook, free from negative emotions and prejudices.
The "hollow lotos-land" is a symbol of a utopian and idyllic world, where the speaker and the person addressed in the poem can live a life of leisure and freedom, away from the worries and responsibilities of everyday life. They are to live "on the hills like gods", enjoying the beauty and peace of the natural world, without concern for the opinions or opinions of others.
The idea is that this utopian existence, with its disregard for the constraints of society, will allow them to experience a sense of transcendence and unity with the natural world. The speaker is inviting the person addressed in the poem to join them in this ideal world, where they can live a life of freedom, peace, and happiness.
In essence, the speaker is proposing that they embark on a journey to a place of their own creation, a place where they can live in harmony with nature, free from the pressures and expectations of society. The idea is to escape the mundane and embrace a life of beauty and serenity, a life that is lived on their own terms and in accordance with their own values and desires.
(ii) no! Let me taste the whole of it, fare like my peers, the heroes of old, bear the brunt, in a minute pay glad lifes arrears of pain, darkness and cold.
The quoted lines are from the poem "dejection: an ode" by samuel taylor coleridge. The speaker is rejecting the idea of seeking refuge in a utopian world, as described in "kubla khan", and instead opting to face the hardships and challenges of life with bravery and fortitude, like the heroes of old.
The speaker expresses a desire to "taste the whole of it", meaning to experience life in all its complexities and difficulties, rather than seeking escape in a serene and idealized world. They want to "fare like my peers, the heroes of old", meaning to face life's challenges with the same courage and resilience as the great heroes of history.
The idea is that the speaker is rejecting the idea of shirking from life's difficulties and instead choosing to embrace them, to "bear the brunt" of the pain, darkness, and cold that life brings. They believe that by facing life's challenges head-on, they will be able to pay "glad life's arrears of pain, darkness, and cold", meaning to catch up with and make up for the hardships and difficulties they have experienced.
In essence, the speaker is expressing a desire to live a life of purpose and meaning, where they face life's difficulties with bravery and fortitude, and where they can grow and develop as a person. The idea is to reject the idea of escape and instead to embrace the complexities and challenges of life, as a means of finding meaning and fulfillment.
(iii) one summer morn forsook his friends, and went to learn the gypsy lore, and roam'ed the world with that wild brotherhood, and came, as most men deem'd, to little good, but came to oxford and his friends no more.
The quoted lines are from the poem "christabel" by samuel taylor coleridge. The lines refer to a young man who, one summer morning, left his friends and joined the community of gypsies in order to learn their way of life and beliefs. The young man roamed the world with the gypsies, as part of their "wild brotherhood", and was believed by many people to have come to little good. However, eventually, he returned to oxford, his home, but did not resume his former relationships with his friends.
The idea behind these lines is that the young man's departure from his friends and his subsequent experiences with the gypsies changed him in some way, causing him to become a different person. The belief that he came to little good suggests that his time with the gypsies was seen as a negative influence, while the fact that he returned to oxford but did not resume his relationships with his friends suggests that he had changed and that his experiences had left a lasting impact on him.
The young man's journey with the gypsies is a metaphor for a spiritual journey, a quest for knowledge and understanding, and a search for a deeper connection to the world. The idea is that the young man's experiences with the gypsies helped him to see the world in a different light and gave him a new perspective on life.
In essence, the lines from "christabel" suggest that there is more to life than the conventional norms and expectations of society, and that there is value in exploring alternative ways of life and beliefs. The young man's journey with the gypsies is a symbol of the importance of seeking knowledge and wisdom, and of breaking free from the constraints of societal norms in order to find a deeper sense of meaning and purpose.
(iv) then joining hands to little hands would bid them cling together, for there is no friend like a sister in calm or stormy weather;
the quoted lines are from the poem "the passionate shepherd to his love" by christopher marlowe. The speaker, a shepherd, is addressing his beloved, inviting her to join hands with him and to hold on to each other tightly. He tells her that there is no friend like a sister, and that this bond will be a source of comfort and support in both calm and stormy weather.
The speaker is emphasizing the importance of having a close and supportive relationship with someone, whether it be a sister or a romantic partner. He suggests that the bond between two people who hold hands and cling together is a source of comfort and strength, and that it is particularly important in difficult times, such as during a storm.
The idea behind these lines is that love and companionship are essential for happiness and well-being, and that a strong bond between two people can provide comfort and support in both good times and bad. The use of the metaphor of a sister to describe a close and supportive relationship suggests that the bond between two people should be based on love, trust, and mutual support, rather than just physical attraction.
In essence, the lines from "the passionate shepherd to his love" highlight the importance of having a close and supportive relationship with someone, and suggest that love and companionship are essential for happiness and well-being. The idea is that a strong bond between two people can provide comfort and support in both calm and stormy weather, and that this bond should be based on love, trust, and mutual support.
Q. Ii answer the following questions in about 300 words each:
4 x 5 =20
1. What role did the women play in the french revolution as seen in a tale of two cities?
In charles dickens' novel "a tale of two cities", the women of the french revolution play a significant role, serving as both victims and agents of change. The revolution, which was characterized by political upheaval, social unrest, and extreme violence, had a profound impact on the lives of women in france.
One of the most prominent female characters in the novel is madame defarge, a leader of the revolutionary group known as the jacquerie. She is depicted as a ruthless and vengeful figure, who uses her knitting to keep a record of the names of those she considers to be enemies of the revolution. Madame defarge represents the idea of a women who has taken advantage of the power vacuum created by the revolution to pursue her own agenda of revenge and retribution.
Another important female character is lucie manette, the daughter of dr. Manette, who has been imprisoned in the bastille for many years. Lucie is depicted as a symbol of grace, compassion, and love, and she plays a crucial role in helping her father regain his sanity and regain control of his life. Despite the danger and turmoil of the revolution, lucie remains steadfast in her devotion to her family, and her unwavering love and kindness serve as a powerful counterpoint to the cruelty and violence of the revolutionary leaders.
Finally, the women of the revolution also serve as symbols of the impact of the revolution on the lives of ordinary people. For example, the women of the vengeance, a group of women who march through the streets of paris with knitting in hand, represent the idea of a society that has been torn apart by political and social upheaval. They symbolize the suffering and desperation of the people, who have been caught up in the chaos and violence of the revolution.
In conclusion, the women of the french revolution play a significant role in "a tale of two cities", serving as both victims and agents of change. Through their experiences, dickens depicts the impact of the revolution on the lives of women in france, and he shows how the women of the revolution played an important role in shaping the course of events. Through their experiences, he also highlights the importance of love, compassion, and kindness, even in the most difficult of circumstances.
2. Trace the theme of fatalism in the novel the mayor of casterbridge.
The theme of fatalism runs throughout thomas hardy's novel "the mayor of casterbridge. " the idea of fate or destiny playing a decisive role in people's lives is a recurring motif in the novel, and it is central to the story's depiction of the protagonist, michael henchard.
One of the key examples of fatalism in the novel is the sale of henchard's wife and daughter at the fair in the opening chapters. This event sets the stage for the rest of the novel, as henchard's fate is sealed by this act of drunken impulsiveness. Despite his later efforts to atone for his mistakes and make amends, henchard is unable to escape the consequences of his actions.
Another example of fatalism in the novel is the recurring idea of "the wheel of fortune. " the wheel is used to symbolize the unpredictability and capriciveness of fate, as well as the idea that people's fortunes can change in an instant. This theme is illustrated through the fluctuations in henchard's social and financial status, as well as through the lives of other characters in the novel, who experience sudden reversals of fortune.
Furthermore, the theme of fatalism is also linked to the idea of determinism, the belief that all events are predetermined and that people have no control over the course of their lives. This idea is evident in the novel's portrayal of henchard, who is often depicted as being at the mercy of fate, even when he tries to take control of his life.
In conclusion, the theme of fatalism plays a central role in "the mayor of casterbridge", and it serves to underscore the idea that people's lives are shaped by forces beyond their control. Through its portrayal of the protagonist, michael henchard, as well as through its depiction of the lives of other characters, the novel shows the impact of fate and destiny on people's lives, and it raises important questions about the role of free will and individual agency in shaping one's fate.
3. What poetic devices has browning employed in his poem meeting at night?
Robert browning's poem "meeting at night" is a romantic, melancholic, and introspective piece that employs a range of poetic devices to convey its mood and message. Some of the most notable devices used in the poem include:
personification: browning personifies the ocean and the night, endowing them with human-like qualities and emotions. This adds to the poem's introspective and melancholic mood.
Metaphor: the use of metaphor is evident throughout the poem, particularly in the comparisons of the sea to a "black and boundless ocean, " and the night to a "dark sarcophagus. " these metaphors help to create an image of the unknown, of loss and emptiness, and of the inevitability of death.
Repetition: the repeated phrase "the night is darkening round me" serves to emphasize the sense of isolation and introspection that the speaker feels. The repetition creates a hypnotic rhythm and reinforces the melancholic mood of the poem.
Alliteration: the repeated "r" sounds in the line "round the cape of a sudden come the seas" adds musicality to the poem and draws the reader's attention to the image of the seas coming suddenly and unpredictably.
Imagery: browning uses vivid imagery to convey the mood of the poem and to create a sense of atmosphere. The use of light and dark imagery, particularly the contrast between the bright lights of the speaker's lover's window and the dark night, serves to emphasize the theme of separation and longing.
Rhyme: the poem employs a rhyming couplet pattern, with the rhyming words occurring at the end of each line. This helps to give the poem a sense of coherence and structure, and it contributes to the melancholic mood by creating a sense of inevitability.
In conclusion, robert browning's "meeting at night" is a melancholic and introspective poem that employs a range of poetic devices to convey its mood and message. The use of personification, metaphor, repetition, alliteration, imagery, and rhyme all contribute to the creation of an atmosphere of longing and loss, and they help to emphasize the themes of separation, introspection, and the inevitability of death.
4. Write a critical appreciation of the poem the splendour falls.
"the splendour falls" is a poem by alfred lord tennyson, written in 1833. The poem is a reflection on the transience of beauty and the inevitability of change and decay. Through its use of vivid imagery and melancholic tone, the poem explores the themes of loss and the passage of time.
One of the key strengths of the poem is its use of imagery. The description of the "splendour" falling "on castle walls" and "grey towers" creates a vivid picture of the beauty and grandeur of the setting. The imagery of the "softly falling" light and the "heavy hour" creates a sense of melancholy and sadness, emphasizing the idea that beauty is fleeting and that all things must come to an end.
The poem's use of metaphor also adds to its meaning and impact. The metaphor of the "splendour falling" serves to convey the idea that beauty is not permanent, but rather it is something that passes away, like light fading at the end of the day. This metaphor adds to the melancholic mood of the poem, highlighting the idea that all things are temporary and that life is marked by loss and change.
Another strength of the poem is its use of rhyme and meter. The poem employs a rhyming couplet pattern, which helps to create a sense of coherence and structure. The use of iambic pentameter further contributes to the melancholic mood, as the steady and mournful rhythm of the poem creates a sense of inevitability, echoing the theme of the transience of beauty.
In conclusion, "the splendour falls" is a melancholic and introspective poem that reflects on the transience of beauty and the inevitability of change. Its vivid imagery, melancholic tone, and use of metaphor, rhyme, and meter all contribute to its impact and meaning. Through its exploration of loss and the passage of time, the poem offers a poignant reminder that all things are temporary and that beauty is fleeting.
Q. III answer the following questions in about 600 words each:
4 x 15 = 60
1. Write a detailed note on dickens representation of the french revolution
charles dickens representation of the french revolution in his novels is notable for its complexity and nuance. Throughout his career, dickens was deeply interested in the events of the revolution and the impact they had on the world. He was fascinated by the sheer scale of the violence and the upheaval, and he saw in the revolution a powerful metaphor for the social and political changes that were taking place in his own time.
In his early novels, such as "a tale of two cities, " dickens portrayed the revolution as a chaotic and violent affair, characterized by the reign of terror and the rise of the guillotine. He depicted the revolution as a time of great turmoil and uncertainty, where ordinary people were caught up in the maelstrom of political events and struggled to survive. Through his portrayal of characters like sydney carton and charles darnay, dickens explored the ways in which individuals were forced to make difficult choices and sacrifices in order to survive in such a dangerous and uncertain time.
However, as dickens matured as a writer, his representation of the revolution became more nuanced. In later novels such as "little dorrit, " he began to see the revolution as a time of great hope and possibility, a time when people came together to fight for their rights and freedoms. He saw in the revolution the promise of a better future, a future where people would be free from tyranny and oppression. Through his portrayal of characters like amy dorrit and her father, dickens explored the ways in which people could find hope and meaning even in the darkest of times.
Despite this hopeful view of the revolution, however, dickens remained deeply critical of its violence and excesses. Throughout his works, he made clear his disapproval of the reign of terror and the use of the guillotine to execute political prisoners. He saw in the revolution a cautionary tale about the dangers of extremism and the need for caution and moderation in the pursuit of political change.
Finally, dickens' representation of the french revolution is notable for its emphasis on the idea of sacrifice. Throughout his works, dickens portrayed the revolution as a time of great sacrifice, where people were willing to lay down their lives for the cause of freedom and equality. He saw in this willingness to sacrifice a powerful testament to the human spirit, and he used his characters to explore the deep emotional and psychological toll that such sacrifices could take.
In conclusion, dickens' representation of the french revolution in his novels is a complex and nuanced portrayal that reflects his own evolving views of the events of that time. Through his depictions of characters, both historical and fictional, he explored the causes and consequences of the revolution, the impact it had on ordinary people, and the enduring lessons it has to teach us about the importance of freedom and equality.
2. Character is destiny and destiny is character. Discuss this statement keeping in mind henchards role in the novel the mayor of casterbridge.
The statement "character is destiny and destiny is character" refers to the idea that a person's innate traits and personality determine the course of their life, as well as the events that befall them. In other words, a person's character shapes their destiny, and their destiny, in turn, reinforces and reinforces their character. This idea is an important theme in thomas hardy's novel "the mayor of casterbridge, " which explores the life and struggles of michael henchard, the eponymous mayor of casterbridge.
Henchard's character is central to the novel and drives its central plot. He is portrayed as a proud and impulsive man, who is often driven by his emotions and lacks self-control. This impulsiveness leads him to make several poor decisions, such as selling his wife and daughter at a fair, and engaging in an intense rivalry with his former friend and business partner, newson. These actions set the stage for the tragic events that unfold in henchard's life, and ultimately lead to his downfall.
However, as the novel progresses, we see that henchard's character is not entirely predetermined by his destiny. Despite his flaws, henchard is a complex and nuanced character who changes and grows throughout the course of the novel. Through his experiences, he learns to confront his mistakes and takes steps to atone for his past actions. He demonstrates a capacity for self-reflection and self-awareness, which suggests that character is not just a fixed entity, but can be shaped and altered by the experiences and circumstances of one's life.
The idea of destiny and character being intertwined is also evident in the way hardy portrays the other characters in the novel. The characters who cross henchard's path are all depicted as being shaped by their own character and experiences, and their lives are defined by their choices and actions. For example, newson, who is introduced as henchard's rival, is portrayed as a patient and kind-hearted man, who ultimately finds happiness and success through his good nature and perseverance. In contrast, lucetta, a woman who becomes involved with henchard later in the novel, is depicted as being driven by her own selfish desires, which ultimately lead to her downfall.
In conclusion, the idea that "character is destiny and destiny is character" is a central theme in "the mayor of casterbridge. " through his portrayal of henchard and the other characters, hardy explores the idea that a person's character influences the events of their life and that their life, in turn, shapes and reinforces their character. By doing so, he shows that character is not a fixed entity, but can be altered and shaped by the experiences and circumstances of one's life. This theme adds depth and complexity to the novel, making it a powerful exploration of the interplay between character, destiny, and the human condition.
3. Critically analyse browings my last duchess.
"my last duchess" is a dramatic monologue written by robert browning in 1842. The poem is a dramatic representation of a nobleman speaking to an emissary of a prospective bride. The nobleman is speaking about his previous wife, the "last duchess, " and his pride and jealousy over her beauty and popularity. The poem is a masterful example of browning's ability to create a complex and nuanced character through a single, sustained voice.
The speaker of the poem is a duke, who is depicted as a wealthy and powerful individual. Through his monologue, we see the duke's pride and jealousy, as he speaks about his wife's beauty and her popularity with others. The duke's pride is evident in the way he speaks about his wife, as he describes her as being "too soon made glad, too easily impressed. " he is also shown to be jealous of her popularity, as he speaks about her smiling too readily and her willingness to speak to anyone who greets her.
One of the most striking aspects of the poem is the way browning uses the dramatic monologue form to reveal the duke's character. Through the duke's words, we see his pride and jealousy, as well as his cruelty and control. The duke's jealousy is evident in the way he speaks about his wife's behavior, and his cruelty is shown in his implied actions toward her. The duke's monologue also reveals his control over others, as he speaks about the portrait of his wife, which he has commissioned and which he uses to control her image.
Another important aspect of the poem is its themes. The poem explores themes of power, control, and jealousy, which are all connected to the duke's character. The poem also explores the idea of beauty and how it can be both a source of pride and a source of jealousy. The duke's jealousy of his wife's beauty is a clear example of this, as he is unable to control her popularity and her smile. The poem also explores the theme of death and how it can be used as a means of control. The duke's implied murder of his wife is an example of this, as he uses her death as a means of controlling her image and ensuring that she remains obedient to him.
In conclusion, "my last duchess" is a masterful example of robert browning's ability to create a complex and nuanced character through a single, sustained voice. Through the duke's monologue, browning explores themes of power, control, jealousy, beauty, and death, which are all connected to the duke's character. The poem is a powerful exploration of the human condition and the dangers of pride and jealousy. The duke's monologue is a testament to browning's ability to create a vivid and memorable character through his words, and the poem remains one of the most celebrated examples of the dramatic monologue form.
4. Write a critical appreciation of arnolds poem the scholar gypsy.
"the scholar gypsy" is a poem written by matthew arnold in 1853. It is a melancholic meditation on the loss of youth, the passage of time, and the pursuit of knowledge. The poem is widely regarded as one of arnold's most important works and is considered a classic example of victorian poetry.
The poem opens with a description of a group of scholars who have left their studies behind to live as gypsies. The scholar gypsy is the main focus of the poem, and arnold uses his journey to explore the themes of loss, time, and knowledge. Through the journey of the scholar gypsy, arnold reflects on the idea that knowledge is fleeting and that youth is lost as time goes by. The poem is filled with a sense of regret and sadness as arnold reflects on the transience of life and the inevitability of death.
One of the most striking aspects of "the scholar gypsy" is arnold's use of language. He employs a rich and complex vocabulary, using a range of literary devices to convey his themes. Arnold's use of metaphor and simile is particularly effective, as he compares the scholar gypsy's journey to the journey of life itself. The imagery in the poem is powerful and evocative, and arnold uses it to create a vivid picture of the scholar gypsy's journey.
Another important aspect of the poem is its structure. The poem is divided into four stanzas, each of which builds on the themes established in the previous stanza. This structure creates a sense of progression and adds to the poem's overall coherence. Arnold also employs repetition in the poem, repeating certain phrases and words throughout the stanzas to emphasize the themes of loss and time.
The poem's themes of loss and time are central to its meaning. Arnold reflects on the loss of youth and the passage of time, and the impact this has on knowledge and the pursuit of wisdom. He suggests that the scholar gypsy's journey represents the journey of life itself, and that as we grow older, we lose our youth and our ability to understand the world in the same way. The poem is a meditation on the idea that all things are transitory, and that life is ultimately fleeting.
In conclusion, "the scholar gypsy" is a poignant and melancholic meditation on the loss of youth, the passage of time, and the pursuit of knowledge. Through its themes, structure, and language, arnold creates a powerful and moving portrayal of the journey of life. The poem remains one of arnold's most important works and is widely regarded as a classic example of victorian poetry. Its themes of loss and time continue to resonate with readers today, making "the scholar gypsy" a timeless and enduring work of literature.